Risk Factors and Chemical Composition of Urinary Stones in the Azorean Population (São Miguel Island - Portugal): A Preliminary Study

  • Diana Paula Silva Linhares Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal; IVAR, Institute of Volcanology and Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
  • Patricia Ventura Garcia Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal; cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, and Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
  • Sara Goulart Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
  • Carlos Sebastião Department of Urology, Hospital do Divino Espirito Santo, Avenida D. Manuel I, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
  • Pedro Mota Preto Department of Urology, Hospital do Divino Espirito Santo, Avenida D. Manuel I, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
  • Armindo dos Santos Rodrigues Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal; IVAR, Institute of Volcanology and Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Keywords: Risk Factors, Urinary Calculi/chemistry

Abstract

Introduction: Urinary stone disease is one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. However, the main risk factors and chemical composition of urinary stones in the population of the Azores are unknown. The objective of this study was to define the most important factors associated with the formation of urinary calculi, investigating eating habits, family history and chemical composition of the calculi in the population of the Azores.

Methods: The data were collected from 46 patients of the Hospital do Divino Espirito Santo and 48 healthy volunteers. A questionnaire was recorded on the medical and family history of the participants and on their life habits. The chemical composition of the calculi was evaluated by ICP-MS.

Results: It was observed that the study group has a higher prevalence of diabetes and cases of urinary calculi in the family compared to the reference group. A positive correlation was found between calcium in the stones and the contents of sodium, magnesium, zinc, molybdenum and strontium.

Conclusion: This study reveals that family history, diabetes and water consumption play an important role in the development of urinary calculi in the population of the Azores. The chemical content of the stones should also be considered since these data could help the medical community to understand the causes of urinary stone formation and adapt the medication and preventive measures to the patient and to the type of kidney stone produced.

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Published
2018-07-24